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Featured The Work of The Holy Spirit

Discussion in 'Bible Study Forum' started by Mungo, Nov 1, 2019.

  1. Mungo

    Mungo Well-Known Member

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    I have an interesting book which discusses the work of the Holy Spirit in our lives. I think it clarifies what can be confusing in scripture. It's called Receiving The Power by Zeb Bradford Long and Douglas McMurray, two Presbyterian Charismatics. It was recommended to me by a Messianic Jew - so very ecumenical.!

    1. Their thesis is that there are two distinctive ways in which the Holy Spirit acts and these are often confused, not the least because the same phrases are used in scripture regarding them. These two ways are referred to by Long & McMurray as ‘the Spirit upon’ and ‘the Spirit within’. Thus there is an external and internal work of the Spirit. This is true both for the Old Testament and the New

    Correspondingly there are:
    2. two ways of receiving the Holy Spirit;
    3. two ways of being filled with the Holy Spirit (or full of the Holy Spirit);
    4. two 'baptisms'.

    That's a lot to discuss. I will start with point 1. above and move on to the others later.

    1. The Spirit 'upon' and the Spirit 'within':
    .Actual quotations from the book are in blue.

    There are two major motifs in scripture…that reflect two different operations of the Holy Spirit. One motif has the Spirit coming “upon” people for power in ministry. A second has the Spirit coming “within” people for salvation and to develop in them skill, wisdom, godly character and maturity in faith and love. Both motifs are equally important and equally biblical.

    Thus there is an external and internal work of the Spirit. This is true both for the Old Testament and the New.

    The external work corresponds to the charismatic gifts of the Spirit which are given for work of ministry. Examples of the ‘Spirit upon’ from the Old Testament are 2Chr 15:1-2 (for prophecy), 1Sam 19:23-24 (ecstatic praise of God), Ez 1:3-4 (for visions).
    Examples from the New Testament are Acts 2:17 (Peter quoting Joel), Acts 10:44-47 (tongues, extolling God), Avts 19:6 (tongues, prophecy)

    The internal work corresponds to the sanctifying gifts of the Spirit, as well as practical gifts. Examples from the Old Testament are Gen 41:38-39 (wisdom), Ex 31:1-5 (knowledge and craftsmanship).]
    Examples from the New Testament are 1Cor 6:19, 2 Cor 1:22, Eph 4:16.


    Long & McMurray use the imagery of a tree where, in the external work, the Spirit gives gifts like those on a Christmas tree, which can be added or removed. They are given for ministry and for the building up of the Church. The internal work is more like the sap permeating the tree giving it life and producing fruit that comes from within. Thus the internal work helps us grow in holiness and spiritual fruitfulness.

    It is important that these two workings are kept in balance.
    As bitter experience has shown, the “Spirit upon” for gifts and power may occur to great effect, but if there is no parallel growth in the inward work of the Spirit, there can follow a loss of power leading to disaster…. Many a large church or impressive evangelistic ministry has been swept away because the preacher or evangelist neglected the inward work of the Holy Spirit becoming proud and unaccountable…

    An opposite but equally tragic situation afflicts the Church when there is an inward work of the Holy Spirit but rejection of the outward work. In this case a believer may pursue moral living, altruistic works, concise exposition of the Word and genuine Christian fellowship but demonstrate no spiritual power to set people free from bondage or fulfil the task of evangelism and making disciples…..

    This half-full Christianity is as scandalous as the other. The world scorns a powerless church as much as it scorns an immoral one…… Surely the answer to both dilemmas is that we open our lives to both kinds of infilling, to the work of “the Spirit upon” and “the Spirit within”.
     
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  2. stunnedbygrace

    stunnedbygrace Well-Known Member

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    Interesting...I tend to see it slightly differently, but in spite of that, the end result is the same-a weak and improperly functioning church.
     
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  3. Episkopos

    Episkopos Well-Known Member

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    The Spirit UPON us is entering INTO Christ. Just like in the upper room in Acts.
    The Spirit within us is only quickened to life when we enter Christ so that we become filled with the Spirit.

    In the OT the Spirit would be ON the prophets...but since there was no indwelling Christ...there was nothing to burst forth into. It was just God's power and authority....but without the character of Christ.

    So then the NT "being filled with the Spirit" is both being IN Christ (under His power) and having Christ within. When both of these are present we can walk the same way Jesus did....in power and authority but also in the character of Jesus having His eyes to love with.
     
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  4. Mungo

    Mungo Well-Known Member

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    Moving on to the second point:

    2
    . two ways of receiving the Holy Spirit
    Long & McMurray don't say much on this; they mainly give examples. So this is more me than them.

    When scripture uses the phrase “receive the Holy Spirit” (or similar) it may be using it to refer to either “the Spirit upon” or the “Spirit within”. Some discernment is needed and sometimes the text is not clear. One test is whether there is some manifestation of “the Spirit upon”.

    The Spirit Upon
    In Acts, Luke seems to use the term exclusively for “the Spirit upon”. At Pentecost the Holy Spirit, in the form of tongues of fire, comes to rest on those in the Upper Room and they all begin to speak in tongues (manifestation) (Acts 2:1-4)

    In Acts 10 the Holy Spirit falls on Cornelius and his household and they began to speak in tongues (manifestation). Peter says "Can any one forbid water for baptizing these people who have received the Holy Spirit just as we have?" (vs 47) – referring to Pentecost. This is “the Spirit upon”.

    In Acts 8 Phillip has been baptizing in Samaria. Peter and John are sent to lay hands on those baptized and prayed for them “that they might receive the Holy Spirit; for it had not yet fallen on any of them, but they had only been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. Then they laid their hands on them and they received the Holy Spirit.” (Acts 8:15-17). Though no particular manifestation is reported there clearly was one because Simon the magician wanted to have the same power saying "Give me also this power, that any one on whom I lay my hands may receive the Holy Spirit." (Vs 19)

    In Acts 19 Paul is in Ephesus and meets 12 men who claim to be disciples but they seem to be lacking something. Paul asks:
    "Did you receive the Holy Spirit when you believed?"
    They replied
    "No, we have never even heard that there is a Holy Spirit."
    They had only been baptized in John’s baptism. Paul has them baptized in the name of Jesus “And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Spirit came on them; and they spoke with tongues and prophesied.” (vs 6)

    It seems they had not received the Holy Spirit in the sense of “the Spirit upon” because Paul could see no manifestations, which then happened when Paul laid hands on them. If they had not been baptized in the name of Jesus then they had not received “the Spirit within” either, but I will come to that later.

    The Spirit Within
    Paul himself, in his writings, seems to use receiving the Holy Spirit in the sense of “the Spirit within” (for character and salvation)

    “The Spirit you received does not make you slaves, so that you live in fear again; rather, the Spirit you received brought about your adoption to sonship ” (Rom 8:15)

    What we have received is not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, so that we may understand what God has freely given us. (1Cor 2:12)

    “Do you not know that your bodies are temples of the Holy Spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from God? ” (1Cor 6:19 - NIV)
     
  5. Mungo

    Mungo Well-Known Member

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    Nobody seems interested in this.
    Never mind I will plough on to:
    3. two ways of being filled with the Holy Spirit (or full of the Holy Spirit);

    This is a bit simpler as the Greek uses two different words.
    Again quotes from Long and McMurray in blue

    The second expression the Bible uses, filled with the Holy Spirit, is more complicated but it too can be understood in the context of the inner and outer work of the Spirit.

    When the New Testament speaks of people being “filled with” or “full of” the Holy Spirit, the Greek word reveals one of two concepts. English translations…. Use the same words for both Greek concepts and do not reflect the difference. One Greek term, pleitho, is used consistently for the outer work of the Holy Spirit and usually refers to a brief temporary filling. Another Greek word pleiroo (or its cognate pleires) is used consistently for the inner work of the Holy Spirit and usually refers to something that gets fuller and fuller until it is saturated. This refers to a state of being.


    The distinction between pleitho and plieroo is more or less consistent, whether they speak of being filled with the Holy Spirit or anything else.

    “Filled” for Action
    The filling referred to by the word pleitho is temporary and followed immediately by action. It corresponds to upon or fell upon.


    Examples of pleitho – temporary, for action
    “And his father Zechariah was filled with the Holy Spirit, and prophesied, saying….” (Lk 1:67)

    “Then Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, said to them……” (Acts 4:8)

    “But Saul, who is also called Paul, filled with the Holy Spirit, looked intently at him and said,….” (Acts 13:9-10).

    This kind of filling happens again and again, just as a sponge may be refilled many times…..The disciples were not filled only once on Pentecost, but many times thereafter…..The presence of the Holy Spirit is constant, but the expression of the power is episodic. (my emboldening)

    I think this usage is what might be called an anointing.

    “Filled” as a State of Being
    The other Greek word for being filled with the Holy Spirit, pleiroo (or its alternative pleires), describes something becoming fuller and fuller. The filling does not happen at distinct times, but is a slow progressive saturation, like yeast permeating a dough, and describes a state of being. Usually there is no reference to dynamic action.


    Examples of pleiroo/pleires – state of being
    “And Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led by the Spirit for forty days in the wilderness, tempted by the devil.” (Lk1-2)

    “Therefore, brethren, pick out from among you seven men of good repute, full of the Spirit and of wisdom …” (Acts 6:3)

    “[F]or he [Barnabus] was a good man, full of the Holy Spirit and of faith…” (Acts 11:24)

    Two Ways of Being Spirit Filled
    We can summarise these findings simply. God wants us to be filled with the Holy Spirit in two distinct senses of the word. He wants us, on the one hand, to be open to all the inner workings of the Spirit in our character, preparing us for eternity and yielding the fruit of the Spirit, especially love. On the other hand, He wants us to be open occasions when we can minister in His power through the gifts of the Spirit.

    In the first instance, we “have” the Holy Spirit. He is described as being “in” us to change our character. Christian character arises from the slow, percolating work of the Holy Spirit…

    In the second instance, the Holy Spirit “has” us. He chooses to use us in a moment to accomplish a ministry by His power. At no time does the Bible indicate that you or I can “have” the power of God in the same way a New Ager tries to get spiritual power to use for good or evil. This kind of power for service comes and goes….
     
  6. Mungo

    Mungo Well-Known Member

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    Two Baptisms

    Moving on the point 4 - "two Baptisms" There are two 'baptisms' of particular concern to the Christian, namely Sacramental Baptism (‘water baptism’) and "Baptism with the Holy Spirit" (‘spirit baptism’).

    Here I wish to note that the term "Baptism with the Holy Spirit" never appears in scripture. It appears to have been coined by Reuben Archer Torrey in the late 19th century.

    There is nothing wrong with using the term, (the terms Trinity and Incarnation do not appear in scripture) as long as we realise that the one baptism on Eph 4:5 means baptism with water.

    Long & McMurray recognise the potential for confusion (although as Presbyterians they do not accept the sacrament of Confirmation).

    ..why is the term baptism used? Doesn’t this create confusion and entangle us in debates about the sacrament of water baptism?

    We use the word baptism to signify an initiation. Just as the water baptism is the initiation into Christ, Holy Spirit baptism is the initiation into the power of the Spirit. Because it is a beginning we do not speak of being “baptised with the Holy Spirit” every time God uses us in some new manifestation of the Spirit. Baptism with the Spirit refers to the first time we sought the Lord and he answered our prayer with power. It is a gateway into power ministry


    Actually that is a useful way of looking at the sacrament of Confirmation (as one of the sacraments of Initiation) and Presbyterians do seem to believe in it - but just refuse to call it a sacrament. But that is a diversion.

    Thus in sacramental Baptism (with water) we receive “the Spirit within”, to equip us for a holy life, and in Confirmation we receive “the Spirit upon” to empower us for ministry and evangelisation.

    R.A. Torrey liked to cite a number of Scriptures, then summarise their contents in a proposition. Torrey challenged all Christians to accept four propositions about Baptism with the Holy Spirit:
    1. There is a diversity of terms but the same experience.
    2. The baptism with the Spirit is a definite experience.
    3. The baptism with the Spirit is distinct from salvation and sanctification.
    4. The baptism with the Spirit is primarily for witness and Christian service.


    There then follows several pages exploring these propositions.


    Thomas Aquinas makes this distinction:
    “… Baptism is a spiritual regeneration unto Christian life, so also is Confirmation a certain spiritual growth bringing man to perfect spiritual age. But it is evident, from a comparison with the life of the body, that the action which is proper to man immediately after birth, is different from the action which is proper to him when he has come to perfect age. And therefore by the sacrament of Confirmation man is given a spiritual power in respect of sacred actions other than those in respect of which he receives power in Baptism. For in Baptism he receives power to do those things which pertain to his own salvation, forasmuch as he lives to himself: whereas in Confirmation he receives power to do those things which pertain to the spiritual combat with the enemies of the Faith. This is evident from the example of the apostles, who, before they received the fullness of the Holy Ghost, were in the "upper room . . . persevering . . . in prayer" (Acts 1:13-14); whereas afterwards they went out and feared not to confess their faith in public, even in the face of the enemies of the Christian Faith. (Summa, Tertia Pars, 72:5)
    (my emboldening)
     
  7. 101G

    101G Well-Known Member

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    Not saying that you're right or wrong, but it dose appear in scripture. Matthew 3:11 "I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance: but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire:"

    So there is a Baptism "WITH" the Holy Ghost which we agree with your afore assessment. for being Baptize "WITH" is for EMPOWERMENT in a work. other words the Holy Spirit will be used to accomplish a WORK. just as John used "Water" for the remmission of Sin, which was the mode of Operation. Acts 19:4 "Then said Paul, John verily baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying unto the people, that they should believe on him which should come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus."

    PICJAG

    PS. this is a very interesting topic.
     
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  8. Mungo

    Mungo Well-Known Member

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    The quote you give me is with a verb.
    "Baptism [noun], with the Holy Spirit" does not appear in scripture.

    'Baptised with the Holy Spirit' is a metaphor.
    In Acts 1:5, just before he ascends to heaven, Jesus says to the apostles: "And while staying with them he charged them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for the promise of the Father, which, he said, “you heard from me, for John baptized with water, but before many days you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit.
    He was prophesying something new was to happen to them; something they had not experienced before so he described it using baptised as a metaphor.

    In his gospel Luke writes: "And behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you; but stay in the city, until you are clothed with power from on high.” This is clearly referring to the same incident - prophesying what was to happen at Pentecost but here Luke uses a different metaphor.
    These are both metaphors, describing a real event, but that event is not a baptism. The baptism that the apostles were familiar with, and continued to use, as the Church has for 2,000 years , is baptism with water.

    I agree as long as it is understood that "baptism with the Holy Spirit" is a metaphor and not confused with the one real baptism (with water) in Eph 4:5
     
  9. 101G

    101G Well-Known Member

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    GINOLJC, to all.
    we must disagree with that assessment. a metaphor? try a simile. scripture, Acts 2:16 "But this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel;"
    Acts 2:17 "And it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh: and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams:"
    here God said, "POUR" as indicating it will be like a water Baptism. just as John used water to baptize, so likewise the Spirit will be poured out like water in a Baptism. now with the term "With". as said John baptized ... "WITH" water, other words he used WATER for the Baptism. he could have used "milk", "gasoline", ect.. Water was just the Joel 2:28 "And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions:"Joel 2:29 "And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out my spirit." or the medium used. so Baptizing "with" the Holy Spirit is just the methods or the medium used.
    ERROR, prophesying is only a result of the pouring out of the Spirit, which was fortold by Joel, listen. Joel 2:28 "And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions:"Joel 2:29 "And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out my spirit."
    so the POURING out of his Spirit is a Baptism. just as the Holy Spirit is means or the method by which we are placed in the Body of Christ.
    as said, water Baptism is physical meaning, it can be seen, other words an "ACTION". Spiritual Baptism is not seem but is MANIFESTED in its Gifts, its an "ACTION" of God, seen in manifestation. there are more than just water Baptism, Baptism is an "ACT", or ACTION, hence the Name of the Book ... Acts of the Apostles.. the "EMPOWERMENT" in Acts chapter 2 is a Baptism "WITH" or the pouring out of the Holy Spirit.

    PICJAG.
     
  10. Mungo

    Mungo Well-Known Member

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    I'll stick to the phrase "figure of speech" in future. :)
     
  11. 101G

    101G Well-Known Member

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    that's ok, its your choice, I'll stay with the Baptism "of" and "With" the Spirit.

    but one other thing, Matthew 20:22 "But Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? They say unto him, We are able."

    which Baptism is this, and please note this way past Jordan and the water Baptism.

    PICJAG.
     
  12. Enoch111

    Enoch111 Well-Known Member

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    When someone makes H2O more important than God the Holy Spirit, watch out for false teachings around the corner.

    And Eph 4:5 is indeed about the baptism WITH the Spirit!
     
  13. Mungo

    Mungo Well-Known Member

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    I'm not making H2O more important than God and the Holy Spirit. That is a stupid claim - but as usual with you it's not backed up by any evidence.

    And Eph 4:5 is indeed baptism with water.
     
  14. Mungo

    Mungo Well-Known Member

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    That's another figure of speech. Jesus is referring to his Passion and death (as also in Mk 10:38-39) and he uses the same figure of speech in Lk 12:50.
     
  15. Giuliano

    Giuliano Well-Known Member

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    It doesn't seem that clear to me:

    Genesis 41:37 And the thing was good in the eyes of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of all his servants.
    38 And Pharaoh said unto his servants, Can we find such a one as this is, a man in whom the Spirit of God is?

    Exodus 31:And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying,
    2 See, I have called by name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah:
    3 And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship,

    Numbers 27:18 And the Lord said unto Moses, Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit, and lay thine hand upon him;

    Ezekiel 2:2 And the spirit entered into me when he spake unto me, and set me upon my feet, that I heard him that spake unto me.
     
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  16. Episkopos

    Episkopos Well-Known Member

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    The purpose of God's voice and direction in the OT was for service in doing what God wanted His servants to do. It was NOT for an inward conformity to Christ. There was no template to be forged into yet available. It was a walk in one's own faith...not the faith of Christ.

    So this is describing being LED by the Spirit....not being in the Spirit. The fact that God can speak to us from within shows that God has access to us in a very intimate way. Not all voices from God have to be through an audible voice.

    When our hearts align with God's He is near to us. He can guide us, direct us. We should realize that the devil also can speak inwardly to us. So a man can also have a wrong spirit in him. Otherwise "possession" of the devil would not be possible.

    So then God is fair. Whatever access He had with people in the OT...so did the devil have that same access.

    Notice it doesn't say FILLED with the Spirit. Or....WALK in the Spirit. So men walked WITH a spirit...or with God and His Spirit.

    The closest thing to describing this situation that I can find is in Micah 2:11

    יא לוּ-אִישׁ הֹלֵךְ רוּחַ, וָשֶׁקֶר כִּזֵּב, אַטִּף לְךָ, לַיַּיִן וְלַשֵּׁכָר; וְהָיָה מַטִּיף, הָעָם הַזֶּה.


    Micah 2:11
    11 If a man walking in the spirit and falsehood do lie, saying, I will prophesy unto thee of wine and of strong drink; he shall even be the prophet of this people.

    The English translation here is not accurate. It is assumed that a person walks in the Spirit from the idea placed in the mind by the wording of the NT. But here there is a spirit of falsehood. There is no definite article...so it is "a spirit" (not "the" Spirit) . And there is not an indicator as to where this spirit is...there in no "in"....it is just "spirit."

    So then words were added in to make sense of the text...which actually reads like ..."if a man walks a spirit and falsehood."


    So then it is possible to walk in one's own righteousness and still be led by the Spirit. And this is acceptable to God.
     
    Last edited: Nov 6, 2019
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  17. 101G

    101G Well-Known Member

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    GINOLJC, TO ALL.
    but was it an actual event? yes, or no. YES, JUST AS HIS water baptism, and his pouring out of his Spirit, as well as his placing us into his body. and while in his body he empower us "with" his Spirit.

    PICJAJ.
     
  18. VictoryinJesus

    VictoryinJesus Well-Known Member

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    1 Peter 1:10-12 Of which salvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you: [11] Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. [12] Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; which things the angels desire to look into.

    “the Spirit of Christ” ...not the spirit of anti-christ but the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify behind the sufferings of Christ. He is all in their words(inspired by the Spirit of Christ) in He said the volume of the book is of Him. Another thing to consider is the action along with the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify 1) seek another’s wealth. Look on the things of others. This the prophets did in “that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things. 2) which is their charity (the Spirit of Christ) towards: not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister”. The prophets suffered long ..and sought not their own but another’s: bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, and endures all things (1 Corinthians 13:4-7). The Spirit of Christ in them, long before us, revealing the way of the Spirit of Christ in seeking not to save His own Life but for another’s gain and wealth towards the Father and entrance into Life in “the bread I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.” The prophets of God also (the Spirit of Christ) in them signifying this “my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.” Same “Spirit of Christ” in His body today in he who will give his flesh(life)(ceasing from his own works)for His name sake, will find New Life in the (Spirit) and the Kingdom of God(made alive to serve The Living God.)
    Hebrews 11:36-40 And others had trial of cruel mockings and scourgings, yea, moreover of bonds and imprisonment: [37] They were stoned, they were sawn asunder, were tempted, were slain with the sword: they wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins; being destitute, afflicted, tormented; [38] (Of whom the world was not worthy they wandered in deserts, and in mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth. [39] And these all, having obtained a good report through faith, received not the promise: [40] God having provided some better thing for us, that they without us should not be made perfect.

    2 Corinthians 5:20-21 Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us: we pray you in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God. [21] For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.

    “the bread I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.” John 13:35-37 By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another. [36] Simon Peter said unto him, Lord, whither goest thou? Jesus answered him, Whither I go, thou canst not follow me now; but thou shalt follow me afterwards. [37] Peter said unto him, Lord, why cannot I follow thee now? I will lay down my life for thy sake.

    Peter also told Christ he would go with him into prison and death...not before the spirit of Christ was in Peter. As Christ told Peter you are not ready but will deny knowing Christ this night.

    I’m sorry I know that is long but maybe we underestimate “the work of the Holy Spirit” diminishing “the Spirit of Christ” in them into a figure of speech or metaphors ...
     
    Last edited: Nov 6, 2019
  19. Giuliano

    Giuliano Well-Known Member

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    One passage reads "filled." If Abraham and others were justified by faith, you think it was their own faith?

    I would say that template did exist in Adam. The point in the Old Testament was to recapture that template -- and still is.
     
  20. Giuliano

    Giuliano Well-Known Member

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    Sorry, but I don't see how that relates to my post about the Holy Spirit being in people in the Old Testament.
     
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